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Remember the days of old ; consider the years of many generations ; ask thy father and he will shew thee; thy elders and they will tell thee.— Deuteronomy, xxxii. 7. I have considered the days of old, the years of ancient times.— Psalms, lxxvii. 5.







DEC 22 190?

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 19QS,

BY JAMES M. SWANK, In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Printed by

J. B. Lippincott Co.

The Washington Square Press



This volume contains my final contribution to the industrial history of our country and particularly of my native State. My long connection with the work of the American Iron and Steel Association has made me acquainted with many important facts relating to the industrial develop- ment of Pennsylvania, including its systems of transportation, which are not to be found in any of the accepted histories of the State but which are abundantly worthy of preservation. These I have recorded in the following pages. In the arrangement of these facts I have conceived it to be necessary to present first a background of the leading incidents in the early history of Pennsylvania. In compiling these incidents I have given prominence to some features of the early history of the province which in my opinion deserve wider recognition than they have received. These include the presence of settlers on the Delaware long before the granting of Penn's charter ; the text of important parts of the charter itself ; the people who settled Pennsylvania after the granting of the char- ter, including the large number of redemptioners ; the existence of negro slavery in Pennsylvania and when and by whom the agitation for its abo- lition was set on foot ; the text of the act providing for this abolition, a much overrated measure ; the cause of the estrangement of the peaceful Delaware Indians ; the physical characteristics of Pennsylvania ; and the animal life of the province. After the presentation of these and other features of the early history of Pennsylvania I have passed to the means of transportation that were employed by the pioneers and by those who came after them the early roads, flatboats, keel boats, ferries, bridges, turnpikes, canals, steamboats, and railroads, and these details are followed by several chapters which deal with the great productive industries of the State. Included in these chapters I have given the early history of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's industrial centre and the world's industrial wonder. The prominence of Pennsylvania as the leading industrial State of the Union is presented in connection with some account of the lead- ing industries of the whole country. A chronological chapter follows which gives a record of many notable industrial events in the history of both the State and the country. This chapter really embodies a vast amount of information the value of which would have justified its pre- sentation in more elaborate form. The book closes with a number of chapters that are devoted to biographical sketches of some eniinent Pennsylvanians, most of whom have been prominently identified with the history and development of Western Pennsylvania, and some of whom have not been honored by their fellow citizens as they have deserved.

This volume deals with exact statements. My long familiarity with the compilation and analysis of industrial statistics has impressed me with the value of statistical methods in the presentation of historical facts. Hence in the preparation of this volume my aim has been first to secure exact information upon such subjects as were deemed worthy


of consideration and next to present this information in a form as con- densed as possible and always in logical and chronological order. Neces- sarily at the outset severe limitations had to be placed upon the subjects to be treated. The book was not intended to be in any sense a history of Pennsylvania not even an exhaustive history of its leading industries. The purpose and scope of the book are fully stated in the title-page. Such important subjects as the military history of Pennsylvania and the history of its schools of learning, all of which shed lustre on the whole history of the State, have been passed over because they were not really essential to the proof of the proposition that Pennsylvania is a great industrial and every way progressive State.

In selecting the subjects to be considered in this volume our iron and steel industries, the greatest of all the manufacturing industries of the State, have received special attention. In dealing with this subject I have made free use of my previous historical investigations, particu- larly as they are recorded in Iron in AH Ages. I have done this not only because that antiquarian volume is but little known to the pres- ent generation, making appropriate the reproduction of such of its lead- ing facts as relate to Pennsylvania, but because some of the historical facts which it records must necessarily be republished in condensed form if later details which bring the record of the iron and steel achieve- ments of the Commonwealth down to the present time are to possess their full significance.

In "Authorities Consulted" I have given credit to the large num- ber of historical and statistical publications that have helped me in the preparation of this volume, quoting freely, with proper credit, from some and but slightly if at all from others. The treasures of the library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and of other Philadelphia libraries have been generously opened for my examination. I am also indebted to many friends for letters containing historical data of great value. A General Index and a Personal Index will assist the reader in his search for any particular information.

As would naturally be supposed by the reader, the utmost pains have been taken to prevent the insertion in the following pages of any errors affecting dates, proper names, or other historical details. If any such errors should be observed, or any serious omissions of historical facts, the blame can not be laid to haste in composition. It is simply impossible in a work which embraces thousands of names and thousands of dates that every one should be correctly given. In the preparation of the copy for the book and in the proof-reading I have had the bene- fit of valuable suggestions and other help from every member of my clerical staff, an obligation which I cheerfully acknowledge. The tail- piece illustrations are reproduced from pen and ink sketches by Miss Anna M. Wirth, all but one being original studies. My thanks are due to the J. B. Lippincott Company for the excellent manner in which the book has been printed and bound. j. is. s.

Philadelphia, No. 261 South Fourth Street, October 1, 1908.


The Life of William Perm. By Samuel M. Janney. 1852.

William Penn. By Augustus C. Buell. 1904.

Life of John Heckewelder. By the Rev. Edward Rondthaler. 1847.

Washington and the West. By Archer Butler Hulbert. 1905.

Washington After the Revolution. By William S. Baker. 1892.

An Account of the Remarkable Occurrences in the Life and Travels of

Colonel James Smith. 1799. Journal of William Maclay. 1789-1791. 1890.

Memorial of Thomas Potts, Junior. By Mrs. Thomas Potts James. 1874. Historical Collections of the State of Pennsylvania. Sherman Day. 1843. Early History of Western Pennsylvania and the West. I. D. Rupp. 1846. A Gazetteer of the State of Pennsylvania. By Thomas F. Gordon. 1832. The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America. By John Fiske. 1901. The Making of Pennsylvania. By Sydney George Fisher. 1896. Pennsylvania, Colony and Commonwealth. By Sydney George Fisher. 1897. The Story of the Palatines. By Sanford H. Cobb. 1897. Two Centuries of Pennsylvania History. By Isaac Sharpless. 1900. A Quaker Experiment in Government. By Isaac Sharpless. 1902. Continental Sketches of Distinguished Pennsylvanians. By D. R. B. Nevin. Pennsylvania Dutch and Other Essays. By Phebe Earle Gibbons. 1882. The Germans in Colonial Times. By Lucy Forney Bittinger. 1901. German Religious Life in Colonial Times. By Lucy Forney Bittinger. 1906. The Huguenot Emigration to America. By Charles W. Baird, D.D. 1885. Memorials of the Huguenots in America. By Rev. A. Stapleton. 1901. The German Sectarians of Pennsylvania. By Julius Friedrich Sachse. 1895. The Fatherland. By Julius Friedrich Sachse. 1897. German Emigration to America. By Rev. Henry Eyster Jacobs, D.D.,

LL.D. 1898. German Exodus to England in 1709. By Frank Ried Diffenderffer. 1897. German Immigration into Pennsylvania. Frank Ried Diffenderffer. 1900. The Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania. 1899. The German and Swiss Settlements of Colonial Pennsylvania. By Oscar

Kuhns. 1901. Recollections of Persons and Places in the West. By H. M. Brackenridge. The Revolutionary Movement in Pennsylvania. By Charles H. Lincoln. The Old National Road. By Archer Butler Hulbert. 1901. Historic Highways of America. By Archer Butler Hulbert. 1904. The Ohio River. By Archer Butler Hulbert. 1906. History of The People of the United States. By John Bach McMaster. Pennsylvania. Pioneer and State. By Albert S. Bolles, Ph.D., LL.D. 1899. Annals of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania. By John F. Watson. 1857. Old Redstone. By Joseph Smith, D.D. 1854. Pioneer Outline History of Northwestern Pennsylvania. By W. J. Mc-

Knight, M.D. 1905. History of American Manufactures. By J. Leander Bishop, M.D. 1861. Iron In All Ages. By James M. Swank. 1892.


Pennsylvania, Colonial and Federal. By Howard M. Jenkins. 1903.

Hazard's Gazetteer of Pennsylvania.

History of Pennsylvania. By Robert Proud. 1798.

History of Pennsylvania. By William H. Egle.

Presbyterian Centenary Memorial. Pittsburgh. 1876.

The Moravian Manual. By Rev. E. De Schweinitz. 1859.

A History of Bethlehem, Pa. By Bishop Joseph Mortimer Levering. 1903.

History of Braddock's Expedition. Edited by Winthrop Sargent. 1855.

The Old Northwest. By B. H. Hinsdale, Ph.D. 1898.

American Animals. By Stone and Cram. 1902.

Mammals of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. By Samuel N. Rhoads. 1903.

The Olden Time. By Neville B. Craig. 1846.

History of Pittsburgh. By Neville B. Craig. 1851.

The French in the Allegheny Valley. By T. J. Chapman. 1887.

Old Pittsburgh Days. By T. J. Chapman. 1900.

Pennsylvania and the Centennial Exhibition. Official Report. 1878.

Old Westmoreland. By Edgar W. Hassler. 1900.

History of the County of Westmoreland. By George Dallas Albert. 1882.

History of Westmoreland County. By John N. Boucher. 1906.

The Scotch-Irish. By Charles A. Hanna. 1902.

The Scotch-Irish in America. Scotch-Irish Society of America.

History of Somerset County. By William Welfley. 1906.

Diary of David Zeisberger. Edited by Eugene F. Bliss. 1885.

Fort Pitt. By Wm. M. Darlington. 1892.

History of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. By W. B. Wilson. 1895.

Fiftieth Anniversary of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company. 1896.

The Monongahela of Old. By James Veech.

Old and New Monongahela. By John S. Van Voorhis, A.M., M.D. 1893.

The Old Pike. A History of the National Road. By T. B. Searight. 1894.

The Oil Regions of Pennsylvania. By William Wright. 1865.

State Book of Pennsylvania. By Thomas H. Burrowes. 1847.

Historical Sketch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 1853.

Canals and Railroads of the United States. By Henry S. Tanner. 1840.

Tunneling. By Henry S. Drinker. 1878.

Transportation Systems in the United States. By J. L. Ringwalt. 1888.

History of American Steam Navigation. By John H. Morrison. 1903.

History of the Lumber Industry of America. By James E. Defebaugh.

History of Fayette County. By Franklin Ellis. 1882.

History of Crawford County. 1888.

History of Bedford, Somerset, and Fulton Counties. 1884.

History of Cambria County. By Henry Wilson Storey. 1907.

History of Bucks County. By William W. H. Davis. 1905.

Cyclopaedia of Indiana and Armstrong Counties. 1891.

Essays and Speeches of Jeremiah S. Black. By Chauncey F. Black. 1886.

Historical and Biographical Sketches. By Samuel W. Pennypacker. 1883.

The Settlement of Germantown. By Samuel W. Pennypacker. 1899.

Year Books of the Pennsylvania Society. By Barr Ferree.

The St. Clair Papers. By William Henry Smith. 1882.

Andrew Carnegie. The Man and His Work. By Barnard Alderson. 1902.

Reports of the United States Geological Survey.

Reports of the United States Census.

And many others.



1. The Lack of Civic Pride in Pennsylvania 1

2. The Founding of Pennsylvania 11

3. The People Who Settled Pennsylvania 26

4. Redemptioners and Other Bonded Servants 43

5. Negro Slavery in Pennsylvania 54

6. The Delaware Indians , 70

7. Physical Characteristics of Pennsylvania 75

8. Animal Life in Pennsylvania 88

9. Buffaloes in Pennsylvania 96

10. Early Transportation in Pennsylvania 102

11. Early Navigation in Pennsylvania ... 114

12. Early Steamboats in Pennsylvania 124

13. Early Canals in Pennsylvania 130

14. The Building of the Pennsylvania Canal 139

15. The Pennsylvania Canal in Operation '. 149

16. Early Railroads in the United States 156

17. Early Railroads in Pennsylvania 165

18. The Great Industries of Pennsylvania 174

19. The Early Iron Industry of Pennsylvania '. . 185

20. The Manufacture of Iron and Steel Rails 202

21. Cornwall and Other Iron Ores 216

22. Coal and Coke in Pennsylvania 224

23. Industries Developed by Pennsylvanians 229.

24. Industries Created by Pennsylvanians 240

25. Early Chain and Wire Bridges 248

26. The Early History of Pittsburgh 255

27. Chronological Record of Important Events 267

28. The Muhlenberg Family of Pennsylvania 289

29. General Arthur St. Clair 298

30. Albert Gallatin 312

31. A Man of Letters 316

32. Two Men from Somerset 331

33. A Champion of Protection 342

34. Other Noted Western Pennsylvanians 349





Pkominent Pennsylvanians have repeatedly and forci- bly called attention to the lack of civic pride in Pennsyl- vania, and they have had good reason for their criticism. It has been truthfully said that we even neglect to claim for our military heroes the honors that are their due. The winter at Valley Forge, which marked the supreme crisis of the Revolution, and the battle of Gettysburg, which de- termined the fate of the Southern Confederacy, are events in the history of Pennsylvania to which its people might point with greater pride than they do. The achievements of eminent Pennsylvanians in war and in peace are not taught to the children of the State in their school-books or commemorated to any considerable extent in monu- ments, or statues, or bronze tablets, so that the present generation of Pennsylvanians and succeeding generations may be reminded of the deeds of these great men and be inspired to noble deeds themselves. The story of the founding of Pennsylvania by that great man, William Penn, is inadequately told in our school histories. The geography and the history of Pennsylvania are so imperfectly taught in our schools and colleges that many Pennsylvanians who are supposed to be liberally educated do not know how many capitals the State has had or where and when the important battle of Bushy Run was fought. It is not, therefore, to be wondered at that a Philadelphia newspa- per writer not long ago said that York, Pennsylvania, is farther away from Baltimore than Philadelphia. Yet York is one of the oldest and one of the most noted cities in the State. The Continental Congress sat at York for nine months during the Revolution, from September 30, 1777, to June 27, 1778, and two signers of the Declaration died


and are buried there, Philip Livingston, of New York, and James Smith, of Pennsylvania.

The pioneer settlers of Pennsylvania endured many hardships and privations, but their sacrifices and services are not conspicuously recognized in our day. Only in a mild way do we observe the scriptural injunction: "Re- member the days of old; consider the years of many generations ; ask thy father and he will shew thee, thy elders and they will tell thee." The Chinese and all other people who worship their ancestors are more to be com- mended than the people of Pennsylvania who forget the pioneers who laid the foundations of a great State. In very few counties in Pennsylvania are there to be found societies for the preservation of local history or museums for the preservation of historical relics.

We are all supposed to be patriotic, but patriotism and civic pride are not convertible terms. To love one's country and to fight for it if necessary is one thing ; to be proud of its pioneers, its past history, its great men, its industrial achievements, its hospitals and other charities, its schools and churches, and the intellectual and moral progress of its people is an entirely different thing. Civic pride also implies a watchful regard for the good name of the town or city and the State in which we have our home.

New England is noted for its civic pride, and its peo- ple are deserving of the highest praise for the veneration they constantly show for the memories of their ancestors. In its periodical publications, in public addresses, and in other ways the history of the early settlement of New England, the part it has played in the development of the country, and the work of its great men and women in the learned professions and in the arts are never for- gotten. New England is thus being constantly advertised to the outside world and commended to its own people for what it has done and for what it is. The literary spirit has always been cultivated in New England and it has been largely fed by the inspiration of local themes. All its great writers have found in its history and customs and traditions attractive and inspiring subjects for their fertile pens.


The civic pride which is found in the Southern States is more notable than that of New England. Without it there could not have been a four years' war for the dissolution of the Union. The great sacrifices which the people of the South made in support of the Lost Cause could not have been possible but for their pride in them- selves and in their ancestors. Almost as one man they united in its support. " The first families of Virginia " was not in its day an empty phrase ; the people who used it were typical of a large class. It illustrated the sentiment of intense loyalty to the South and to Southern traditions. In the old days Virginians were proud to say that their State was the mother of Presidents. And how proud they are to-day that General Robert E. Lee was a Virginian ! The neighboring State of Ohio has shown far more civic pride than Pennsylvania, although, if the history of the two States be closely studied, it has not one-half as much to be proud of as Pennsylvania. But see how its people have developed a State pride that never ceases to honor the men who were born on its soil!

Abraham Lincoln's ancestors, on both his father's and his mother's side, were long residents of Pennsylvania, and the name of one of his kinsmen, also named Abraham Lincoln, is honorably associated with its history. General Grant could trace both his paternal and maternal lineage through the blood of Pennsylvanians ; indeed this blood was the dominant strain in his veins, his father's mother having been Rachel Kelly, of Westmoreland county, Penn- sylvania, and his own mother, Hannah Simpson, having been born in Montgomery county, Pennsylvania. And yet very few Pennsylvanians know anything of the Pennsyl- vania ancestry of Lincoln and Grant. Both Rachel Kelly and Hannah Simpson were of Scotch-Irish extraction. The Muhlenberg family of Pennsylvania is one of the most distinguished in our country's history; contributing as many really great men as any other family in any colony or State, but Pennsylvanians are not so familiar as they should be with the achievements of these eminent Pennsylvania Germans.

In the literary history of Pennsylvania we have had


Bayard Taylor, Thomas Buchanan Read, George H. Boker, Henry Charles Lea, the eminent historian, and other writ- ers of prominence, but Pennsylvanians do not have that regard for the productions of these writers that the peo- ple of New England have for the creations of their own great writers. We have had our great judges Wilson, and Tilghman, and Gibson, and others, but many Pennsyl- vanians do not know that such men have ever lived. If they had lived in New England the whole country would have heard of them. Bunker Hill monument has no coun- terpart in Pennsylvania, although great deeds were done on its soil in colonial and Revolutionary days. There is a statue of Dr. Benjamin Rush, the distinguished Phila- delphian, in Washington City, but none in Philadelphia. It was only within the last few years that a creditable statue of Franklin was erected in Philadelphia, the gift of a private citizen.

Philadelphia has not erected any monument, or statue, or tablet to the memory of its great publicists whose watchful care of its manufacturing and other industrial interests has greatly contributed to its prosperity as well as to the prosperity of the whole country. Mathew and Henry C. Carey, William D. Kelley, and Samuel J. Randall are especially worthy of being gratefully remembered by a city which they so faithfully served and so highly honored. In the same class we may also place Stephen Colwell, whose great work on The Ways and Means of Payment and his other publications should cause Phila- delphians to hold his memory in honored remembrance. But few Philadelphians know that this man ever lived. New England would have thought itself honored if all these men had lived within its borders.

There is a particularly noticeable lack of civic pride in that part of Pennsylvania which lies west of the back- bone of the Allegheny mountains and is properly desig- nated as Western Pennsylvania. This section of the State, embracing over one-third of its territorial extent, possesses a history that is rich in great achievements and in great men, although settled a full century after the eastern section. Its inhabitants, particularly the descendants of


its early settlers, have good reason to be proud of its prominent place in the industrial world, proud of its con- spicuous share in opening to settlement the vast region lying west of its own boundaries, proud of its patriotic record, proud of its men of renown who have passed to the other side and of others whose work is not yet done. But these citizens of Western Pennsylvania are singularly backward in claiming for their section the honors to which it is justly entitled. Their annals are incomplete and dis- jointed; there is a lamentable lack of interest in histor- ical subjects in all Western Pennsylvania a greater lack than is noticeable in the earlier settled parts of the State. There is not published to-day within its borders a single historical magazine or other historical periodical. It has few public libraries, and those that are worthy of special mention have been established in recent years through the liberality of one man, and he is not " native here and to the manner born." Its schools of learning and its charities have not been generously endowed by its rich men, except in one notable instance, in which the munifi- cence of the public-spirited citizen already referred to has established and endowed a' scientific school of wide scope and great usefulness.

Pittsburgh, the second city in Pennsylvania, has no monument to the great Pitt, after whom it was named, or to Washington, who visited its site in 1753, when he wrote in his journal that the point at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers was "extremely well situated for a fort." Washington's early military experi- ence was acquired in efforts to prevent the French from seizing and holding the point between these rivers where Pittsburgh now stands. There is no memorial stone or monument to mark the site of Fort Necessity, in Fayette county, which Washington surrendered to the French in 1754, or to mark the site of Braddock's defeat in 1755, or to mark the general's grave on the line of his retreat.

Among the few Indian relics in Pennsylvania was a large flat stone on a farm in Washington county, upon which had been carved various curious Indian hieroglyph- ics that had attracted wide attention from Revolutionary


times. This stone was blown up recently with dynamite by the owner of the farm to rid himself of the annoyance caused by so many visitors to the stone. With the frag- ments he built a smokehouse.

The trouble with Pennsylvania in all its extent, from the Delaware river to the Ohio border, is traceable to many causes. In the first place it has a population that was originally composed of elements that were not homo- geneous, like that of New England and the Southern States, which were settled chiefly by people of English birth, and that were not even as homogeneous as the pio- neer population of Ohio ; hence a certain absence from the beginning of what may be termed local pride such as pre- vails among a people with a common origin. This lack of homogeneity is illustrated in the glorification of the Scotch- Irish by Pennsylvanians of Scotch-Irish ancestry and by the organization of a strong society composed exclusively of descendants of the early German settlers of Pennsylva- nia. Notwithstanding many intermarriages these leading strains of blood in the settlement of Pennsylvania have not yet been thoroughly mingled, nor are they likely to be. Then, too, we had the Quaker settlers of English and Welsh blood, and we have their descendants to-day, all of whom have kept themselves apart from their Scotch- Irish and German neighbors to a very large extent. Few of these, indeed, have lived in any other part of Penn- sylvania than Philadelphia and the adjacent territory. In colonial days there were frequent conflicts between the dominant Quaker element and the German and Scotch- Irish settlers. They seldom agreed about anything. The large German and Irish immigration of the last sixty or seventy years has introduced other elements that have further emphasized the mixed character of the people of Penns3'lvania. The German immigrants in this period have had few points of resemblance to the early German settlers, while few of the immigrants from Ireland in the same period have been Scotch-Irish. Nor should it be forgotten that in the northern and northwestern parts of the State and in Philadelphia there is a large infusion of New England blood.


In the last thirty or thirty-five years the lack of homo- geneity among the people of Pennsylvania has been con- spicuously and most painfully emphasized in the invasion of large sections of the State by hordes of Italians, Slavo- nians, and other immigrants of distinctly lower types than the original European settlers of Pennsylvania; hence less and less civic pride, for what do these people know about the past of Pennsylvania or about its present achieve- ments ? Most of them do not even speak the English lan- guage. They are not Pennsylvanians in any sense.

The negro population of Pennsylvania has largely in- creased since the civil war. This State has a much larger negro population than any other Northern State 156,845 in the census year 1900. Philadelphia has a larger negro population than any other Northern city and a much larger negro population than any Southern city except Washington, Baltimore, and New Orleans. This negro in- vasion has introduced practically a new and largely an undesirable element into the population of Pennsylvania, and it has brought its own train of evils and given the State nothing to be proud of. There are more negro voters in Pennsylvania than in any other Northern State.

If undesirable foreigners and undesirable negroes can not be restrained by law from coming into Pennsylvania an enlightened public sentiment, which is of the essence of civic pride, should be aroused to the necessity of secur- ing by some means all possible protection against one of the greatest evils that now menace the good name and the material and moral well-being of the Commonwealth the debasement of our population. Western Pennsylva- nia suffers far more from the influx of undesirable immi- grants and undesirable negroes than Central or Eastern Pennsylvania. A recent writer points out in the following sentences a serious defect in the character of one class of present-day immigrants which has thousands of rep- resentatives in Pennsylvania. " The weak point in the Italian temperament is easily found. It is the hot temper and the thirst for revenge that go with their passionate natures. That this is a real handicap no one will deny." The foreign element and the negro element referred to


afford a wide field for missionary work by the churches which has heretofore been greatly neglected. The present situation is simply deplorable. Worthy negroes and wor- thy foreigners are, of course, always welcome.

Another cause of the trouble with Pennsylvania is found in the arduous pursuits of many of its people, who are now and long have been so largely occupied in such exhausting employments as the mining of coal, the mak- ing of coke, the manufacture of iron and steel and glass, the pumping of oil, the building and operating of canals and railroads, and the cutting down of forests that they have not, as a rule, felt the impulse to consult the few authorities which tell of the past and present achieve- ments of Pennsylvania, even its industrial achievements, a knowledge of all of which is surely essential to the devel- opment of civic pride such as Paul felt when he boasted that he was " a citizen of no mean city."

It may be frankly admitted that the pursuits of a people have much to do with their mental development, their tastes, and their ambition. The people of Western Pennsylvania especially have been so absorbingly devoted to the development of its natural resources and so keen to embrace its exceptionally favorable business opportuni- ties that the less strenuous and more intellectual side of life, which appeals to the imagination, to the love of art and music and elevating literature, and which places a liberal education above mere money-making, has been in large part neglected. Its people have even neglected to adequately record the industrial achievements to the ac- complishment of which they have been so devoted. West- ern Pennsylvania has little literature that tells the world what its whole people have done in leading departments of human effort.

Lastly, the physical conformation of Pennsylvania has had very much to do with the lack of civic pride among its people. The Allegheny mountains form a great natu- ral barrier between the eastern and the western parts of the State. Over a century elapsed after the first white settlements were made on the Delaware before there were any white settlements whatever in the Allegheny and


Monongahela valleys west of the mountains. Social and business intercourse between these sections before the days of railroads was infrequent, and nearly all intercourse be- tween them to-day is a matter of either business or poli- tics. There is more business and social intercourse be- tween Philadelphia and New York than between Phila- delphia and Pittsburgh. When a rich man in Pittsburgh decides to change his residence to another city he moves to New York and not to Philadelphia. The interests of the two sections are not antagonistic but they are not no- tably identical. Speaking generally they were not settled .by the same races. There are comparatively few Penn- sylvania Germans in Western Pennsylvania, and in the counties along the Delaware and the Schuylkill there are few descendants of Scotch-Irish. A common pride in the great names or the great achievements of either section has certainly not been promoted by the barrier that has been mentioned. It has been said that " lands intersected by a narrow frith abhor each other," and mountain bar- riers, even when scaled by railroads, undoubtedly exer- cise an unneighborly if not an unfriendly influence. In- cidentally it may be mentioned that Pennsylvania is a State of very great territorial extent. Very few of its citizens have ever visited all of its sixty-seven counties, or even the half of them.

The people who settled Eastern Pennsylvania, even the proprietaries who succeeded Penn, did not concern them- selves very much about the western part of the State. A Dutch writer, of Amsterdam, once innocently gave ex- pression to the popular conception of the extent of. Penn- sylvania which prevailed for many years after its settle- ment. He said that Pennsylvania embraces "an exten- sive tract of land, bounded on the east by the Delaware, on the north by the present New York, on the west by the Allegheny mountains, and on the south by Maryland."

The lack of civic pride in Pennsylvanians is thus seen to be due to several influences, each important and all contributing to a condition which every loyal Penn- sylvanian must deplore. The time will doubtless come, although it may be long delayed, when the citizens of


this great Commonwealth, although justified in boasting that they are descended from Scotch-Irish, German, Dutch, Huguenot, English, Welsh, or other ancestry, will also be proud to say that they are Pennsylvanians and the de- scendants of Pennsylvanians, and will point to the monu- ments that have been erected and to other evidences that they and their fathers have remembered the days of old. In the meantime, if there are political or other wrongs to be righted in Pennsylvania and they are permitted to continue if our laws for the regulation of the liquor traffic and the sweatshops and the employment of children in factories and in and about coal mines are not made more stringent and more restrictive than they are the fault will lie with those who, whatever their boasting, still lack the true civic pride that maketh a great people and, next to righteousness, exalteth a nation.

In the following chapters an attempt will be made to show that Pennsylvania is entitled to greater honor than she has yet received from her own citizens, and in the facts that we shall present particular attention will be paid to Western Pennsylvania, whose history has hereto- fore been greatly neglected, especially its industrial his- tory. First, however, the leading facts which relate to the early settlement of the province will be presented.




The charter of the province of Pennsylvania was granted to William Penn in March, 1681, in consideration of a debt of £16,000 due by the king, Charles the Second, to his father at the time of the latter's death in 1670. Sir William Penn, the father, had been an admiral of distinc- tion in the British navy and was a warm personal friend of the king. The son, therefore, in reality paid nothing for his province except the payments he made to the Indians.

When Penn received his charter from Charles the Sec- ond, and in October of the following year sailed up the Delaware in the good ship Welcome, he was not the first person to attempt the establishment of a colony of Euro- peans within the limits of the present Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. " Brave men were living before Agamem- non." The way had been prepared for Penn's "holy ex- periment" by the Swedish and Dutch settlers on both the east and the west banks of the Delaware, and even by other Englishmen, the Swedes preceding Penn with actual settlements by about forty-three years, (1638,) the Dutch, after their victory over the Swedes, by about twenty-six years, (1655,) and the Duke of York's settlers at Upland and elsewhere by about seventeen years, (1664). The Dutch were the first Europeans to explore the Delaware, but they made no permanent settlements on its west bank until after the coming of the Swedes. A few Finns came with the Swedes. When Penn came there were Swedish settlements on the Delaware above and below the mouth of the Schuylkill and on the Schuylkill itself, and up the Schuylkill and lower down the Delaware there were a few Dutch settlements, while across the Delaware in West Jersey and on the west side of the river above and below the site of the future Philadelphia there were a few English settlements. All these predecessors of Penn estab- lished and with few exceptions maintained friendly rela-


tions with the Indians on both banks of the Delaware, so that, when Penn came with his colonists and his peaceful intentions, it was easy for him to secure the good will of these primitive people. Penn was, therefore, in no sense a pioneer in the settlement of his province, nor did he have to contend with hostile Indians, as many of the pioneers in other colonies, and also the early settlers in the interior of Pennsylvania in after years, had to do. He is entitled to unending praise for the great and wise work that he did in founding an empire on the principles of civil and religious liberty, which were not so generally recognized in that day as they are now, but the Swedes, the Finns, the Dutch, and the Duke of York's settlers were here long before the granting of the famous charter.

Delaware bay was visited by Henry Hudson, then in the service of the Dutch East India Company, in 1609, and in 1610 it was visited by Captain Samuel Argall, commanding an English vessel, who gave it and the river the name of Delaware in honor of Lord de la Warr, the governor and captain-general of Virginia. The Indians had various names for the Delaware river. The Schuylkill river is supposed to have been discovered in 1616 by Cap- tain Cornelius Hendricksen, in command of a Dutch vessel, the Onrust. Hendricksen is said to have named the river Schuylkill, which means hidden stream, the story being that, in sailing up the Delaware, he did not notice the mouth of the Schuylkill, as it was hidden by the over- hanging foliage, but he observed it on his return. The Delaware Indians called it Ganshowehanne, meaning wav- ing stream.

In 1623 or 1624 Captain Cornelius Jacobson Mey, com- manding a vessel owned by Amsterdam merchants, and who had previously visited Delaware bay, sailed up the Delaware and founded Fort Nassau in New Jersey, nearly opposite Philadelphia, as a trading post with the Indians. The fort stood for nearly thirty years, when it was aban- doned. This was the first settlement of white persons on the Delaware of which there is authentic information, but it was not in Pennsylvania or in the territory now embraced in the State of Delaware. In 1643 the Swedes


built Fort Elfsborg, in West Jersey, near the site of the present town of Salem, but the fort was abandoned about two years after it was built, the Dutch resenting the pres- ence of the Swedes in New Jersey.

In 1631 the Dutch, under David Pietersen DeVries, founded a settlement which they called Swanandael, on the west side of Delaware bay, at a point near where the town of Lewes, in Sussex county, Delaware, is now locat- ed. This settlement lasted for about one year, when all the inhabitants, about thirty in number, were massacred by the Indians. Trading by the Dutch with the Indians on the Delaware continued, however, without serious dis- turbance or interruption until 1638, in which year a small colony, under the auspices of Queen Christina, of Sweden, sailed up the Delaware in two ships, commanded by Peter Minuet, with the express purpose of founding a permanent settlement on the west side of the river. This settlement was successfully established at Fort Christina, now Wil- mington. Quarrels more or less serious between the Dutch and the Swedes for the control of the trade of the Dela- ware and the territory on both sides of the river followed this settlement. In the meantime many Swedes and Finns re-enforced the parent Swedish colony and established other settlements, the principal new settlement being at Tinicum, below the present Philadelphia. This was the first settlement of Europeans within the limits of Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1643. The Swedes, who called their new country New Sweden, had no serious quarrels with the Indians, nor had the Dutch on the Delaware after the mas- sacre at Swanandael, although the Swedish policy in deal- ing with the Indians was always more distinctly peaceable than that of the Dutch. The Swedes were mostly farmers and they invariably bought their lands from the Indians. The Dutch on the Delaware were chiefly traders in beaver skins and other furs and were never so numerous as the Swedes. As traders they did not hesitate to pay the In- dians for their furs with brandy and other liquors, which caused most of the troubles that the settlers experienced in dealing with them. The Delaware Indians, otherwise known as the Lenni Lenape, occupied the land on both


sides of the Delaware and were known as River Indians, but west of them, on the headwaters of Chesapeake bay, were the warlike Susquehannocks, or Minquas, who did not live on terms of amity with the Delawares. All the domestic animals, the cereals, and garden vegetables were brought by the Swedes and Dutch to the Delaware.

In 1655 the Dutch were successful in establishing their supremacy over the Swedes, but they permitted the Swedes to remain. Nine years later the whole Delaware country, following the surrender of New York by the Dutch to the English, passed under the control of the Duke of York, who maintained his rule over the territory west of the Delaware, with the exception of about one year, until the coming of Penn. When Penn came in 1682 he first landed at New Castle and a day or two after at Upland,